The modern state of Ghana is named after the ancient Ghana empire that flourished until the 13 th century in western Sudan. The Akan peoples, who inhabited most of the forest and coastland, founded their first states in the 13 th century. Mande traders, looking for gold, reached the northern borders of what is now Ghana by the 14 th century. Hausa merchants, seeking kola nuts, arrived by the 16 th century. In the 17 th century, the founders of the Ga and Ewe states arrived from Nigeria.
The largest and most powerful ethnic group are the Ashanti, who belong to the Twi-speaking branch of the Akan peoples. The Ashanti originated in the central forest region and formed a strongly centralised empire which dominated much of Ghana during the 18 th and 19 th centuries.
European exploration began in the 15 th century. The Portuguese established a settlement in Elmina (meaning "the mine"), which became one of the main centres for the slave trade. By the 17 th century, the Portuguese had lost their monopoly because of the arrival of traders from The Netherlands, England, Denmark, Sweden and Prussia. By the mid-18 th century, the Gold Coast was dominated by numerous forts, controlled by Dutch, British and Danish merchants.
Britain made the Gold Coast a crown colony in 1874. It established protectorates over the Ashanti and the northern territories in 1901.
Nationalist movements were created early in the colonial period. By 1946, concessions to African demands for representation had led to an African majority in Ghana's Legislative Council. But the executive branch - and effective rule - was still in the hands of the British governor.
In 1948, Kwame Nkrumah established the Convention People's Party, whose campaign slogan was "self-government now". In 1952, Nkrumah became the first African prime minister in the Commonwealth. He went on to win the elections in 1954 and 1956. On August 3, 1956, the Legislative Assembly passed a unanimous motion calling for complete independence.
- Ancient Dutch forts and castles in Ghana
- Independence on March 6, 1957, the Gold Coast became the independent state of Ghana, the first African country to break colonial bonds. Kwame Nkrumah was the first prime minister, and in 1960, he became president.
The country's economy deteriorated rapidly after independence: a lot of money was spent on prestige projects and on advancing the cause of pan-Africanism and the non-aligned movement. Nkrumah was ousted in a bloodless military coup in 1966.
A new president was elected in 1969, but he was overthrown in a coup three years later. The ensuing military regime was ousted in yet another coup in 1978. Two more military coups followed in 1979 and 1981. Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings led both. He pledged to eliminate rampant corruption and restore the nation's economy. Initially regarded as a revolutionary socialist, Rawlings managed to stop Ghana's economic slide, and in 1992, he was elected president in democratic elections. Followed by President Kufuor, up to date.
Problem that exists:
Inflation lack of medicine, food, transportation, etc. massive unemployment schools/health care is broken down
Goods available but not affordable.